A Traceability Matrix is an excellent tool to trace the requirements through an automation project. This is only possible when the User Requirements Specification (URS) contains traceable requirements with Smart criteria. Requirements can be made traceable by putting the requirements in the URS in a set of tables, where the requirements are numbered. Beside this is done for a Traceability Matrix, this is also required for a detailed Risk Assessment.
With the Traceability Matrix you are able to check the completeness of requirements in the documentation, implementation and tests. After the project the Traceability Matrix is used as a cross reference. This helps to define the required modifications to software and documents in case of necessary changes.
A Traceability Matrix can be easily created using a spreadsheet, but also specialized software is avaiiable.
Create a spreadsheet with a row for each requirement. Put the requirement number in the first column, followed by the requirement description, the GMP relevance and the Risk Priority (from the Risk Assessment). Create columns for each document that will be created, like Functional Specification, Software designs and Test Specifications (pre-FAT, FAT, SAT, IQ, OQ, PQ). When a document is release, fill the column for that document with a reference for the requirements. When requirements are not referenced in the document, the requirement could be forgotten. Indicate the reference with 'Not Applicable' when the requirement is not intended to be described in that document. At the end of the project al columns should be filled. Conclusions may be referenced in the Validation Summary Report.
The above picture shows a small screenshot of a Traceability Matrix.